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  • Yellow fever is a viral disease found in tropical regions of Africa and the Americas that mainly affects humans and monkeys and is transmitted by the same type of mosquito that spreads dengue and the Zika virus. Hundreds of thousands of people died from it in the Americas before a vaccine was developed in 1938. If traveling to an area with a Yellow Fever Advisory, you need to plan ahead in order to be properly vaccinated for protection from Yellow fever.


    Yellow Fever Travel Advisory:


    [1] Minas Gerais, São Paulo: new human cases

    Date: Mon 30 Jan 2017

    Source: Fox News, Associated Press (AP) report [edited] <http://www.foxnews.com/health/2017/01/30/brazil-confirms-more-yellow-fever-cases-over-100-infected.html>

    The vast majority of [yellow fever] cases are in the southeastern state of Minas Gerais, where authorities had confirmed 97 cases as of [Fri 27 Jan 2017]. Of those, 40 died.

    The Health Department of São Paulo on [Mon 30 Jan 2017] said it has now confirmed 6 cases of the disease, 4 of whom became infected in Minas Gerais. All of the patients died.

    Much of Brazil is considered at risk for yellow fever, but the country has not seen this large an outbreak since 2000. The World Health Organization has said it expects the mosquito-borne to spread to more states.

    Communicated by:






    A ProMED-mail post


    ProMED-mail is a program of the

    International Society for Infectious Diseases <http://www.isid.org>


    Date: Tue 26 Apr 2016

    Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]


    In a follow-up to a previous report on yellow fever in Central Peru, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) reports that through the 1st week of April 2016, there were 25 suspected cases of yellow fever reported, including 2 deaths. Of the reported cases, 9 were confirmed;

    11 were classified as probable, and 5 were discarded.

    The regions reporting the highest number of cases — confirmed and probable — were Junin (8 cases) and San Martin (6 cases). Currently, Peru is the only country in the Americas to report confirmed yellow fever in 2016.

    The number of cases reported to date in 2016 exceeds the total of cases reported in the preceding 2 years; with 15 cases reported in 2014 and 17 cases reported in 2015.

    PAHO reports the global supply of yellow fever vaccines has been insufficient for years. The PAHO/WHO Revolving Fund provides about 50 per cent of the demand in the region of the Americas. The current outbreak in Angola has stretched existing yellow fever vaccine supplies.

    Yellow fever is a disease caused by a virus that is spread through mosquito bites. Symptoms take 3-6 days to develop and include fever, chills, headache, backache, and muscle aches. About 15 percent of people who get yellow fever develop serious illness that can lead to bleeding, shock, organ failure, and sometimes death.

    [byline: Robert Harriman]

    communicated by:

    ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts


    [The Amazon Basin, including the part pertaining to Peru, is endemic for yellow fever (YF) virus, where it is maintained in the sylvan (forest or jungle) cycle. Sporadic human YF cases occur here. Last year (2015) as of 28 Nov 2015, Peru reported 21 cases of human sylvan yellow fever in 7 regions, with 5 cases in Junin. Curiously, no mention is made of the deaths of YF virus infected monkeys in the forest, which is often the indicator of circulation of the virus in the area. Sylvan human cases bring the risk of subsequent spill over into urban and suburban human populations when infected individuals bring the virus into areas where the urban cycle vector, _Aedes aegypti_ occurs, and when these populations are not vaccinated. The developing shortage of YF vaccine is of concern, should an urban transmission cycle be initiated.

    A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Peru can be accessed at <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/34697>, and a map showing the location of the places mentioned can be accessed at <http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/peru_admin_06.jpg>. – Mod.TY

    A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:


    Published on May 9, 2016

    It’s Up to You: Dengue – Yellow Fever Control (USPHS, 1945)

    From: U.S. National Library of Medicine

    Zika and Chikungunya were not a problem in 1944, but the basic concepts still apply to this domestic mosquito.

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